Cardioprotection 'outside the box'--the evolving paradigm of remote preconditioning

Basic Res Cardiol. 2003 May;98(3):149-57. doi: 10.1007/s00395-003-0406-y.


Conventional ischemic preconditioning is the phenomenon whereby brief episodes of myocardial ischemia render the ischemic territory resistant to a subsequent, sustained ischemic insult. A growing body of evidence further indicates that brief ischemia applied in distant organs and tissues can also protect naïve, virgin myocardium from ischemic injury. In this review, we describe the initial observations that provided the impetus for the study of 'remote preconditioning', and summarize our current knowledge of the three facets of 'preconditioning at a distance' --intra-cardiac, inter-organ and transferred inter-cardiac preconditioning.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain / physiology
  • Heart / physiology
  • Humans
  • Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial*
  • Kidney / physiology
  • Myocardial Ischemia / physiopathology*