A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells

Mol Cell. 2003 Jul;12(1):255-60. doi: 10.1016/s1097-2765(03)00225-9.

Abstract

Small DNA viruses force quiescent cells to reenter the cell cycle in order to replicate their DNA. We report here that the adenovirus E1A protein creates an S phase environment in quiescent cells by overcoming the nucleosomal repression of E2F-targeted genes. These genes are surrounded by Lys-9-methylated H3 histones, and their promoters are occupied by the pRb-related protein p130 and the inhibitory transcription factor E2F4. Kinetic analysis indicates that E1A binds to E2F promoters where it eliminates p130 and E2F4, resulting in the dramatic elimination of H3 Lys-9 methylation. Thereafter, H3 Lys-9 acetylation occurs along with the recruitment of activating E2F family members, and this is followed by the transcriptional activity of E2F-targeted genes. These results indicate that E1A has a role in reconfiguring chromatin structure and that this activity is necessary to overcome the repressive mechanisms that maintain cells in a quiescent state.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells
  • Acetylation
  • Adenoviridae / genetics*
  • Adenovirus E1A Proteins / genetics
  • Adenovirus E1A Proteins / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Cell Division / genetics*
  • Chromatin / genetics
  • Chromatin / virology*
  • DNA Replication / genetics*
  • DNA, Viral / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • E2F4 Transcription Factor
  • Eukaryotic Cells / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral / genetics
  • Gene Silencing / physiology
  • Histones / genetics
  • Histones / metabolism
  • Lysine / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Phosphoproteins / genetics
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Proteins*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130
  • S Phase / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic / genetics
  • Virus Replication / genetics*

Substances

  • Adenovirus E1A Proteins
  • Chromatin
  • DNA, Viral
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • E2F4 Transcription Factor
  • ETV4 protein, human
  • Histones
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets
  • Rbl2 protein, mouse
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130
  • Transcription Factors
  • Lysine