Background: It has previously been shown that corpus-dominant grade and activity of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in combination with intestinal metaplasia in the antrum or corpus are risk markers for the development of stomach cancer. If one point is scored for each of these three parameters, a gastric cancer risk index is obtained that permits prediction of the risk of gastric cancer developing on the soil of H. pylori gastritis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of the gastric cancer risk index based on a large number of patients compared with dyspeptic controls.
Methods: In 415 biopsied patients with gastric carcinoma, biopsy specimens taken from the antrum and corpus were investigated retrospectively. From this group of patients, 244 patients positive for H. pylori were compared with 244 sex- and age-matched H. pylori-infected patients with functional dyspepsia.
Results: H. pylori gastritis was detected in 395 carcinoma patients (95.2%). The 244 sex- and age-matched patients significantly more frequently had corpus-dominant H. pylori gastritis (compared with NUD controls). The incidence of intestinal metaplasia was also significantly increased. For a gastric cancer risk index score of 3 points (i.e. corpus pronounced grade and activity of gastritis, and intestinal metaplasia in antrum or corpus), a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 85% for the presence of gastric carcinoma can be calculated.
Conclusion: Using the proposed risk index, the topographic grading of H. pylori gastritis in the antrum and corpus enables the diagnosis of a 'risk gastritis' to be made.