Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is increased in sensory neurons exposed to adjuvant induced peripheral inflammation. Local elevation in expression of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) is a main factor contributing to the neuronal response to inflammation. This study examines the role of endogenous NGF in inflammation-associated increases in PACAP expression using the adjuvant-induced peripheral inflammation model with or without systemic administration of antibodies against NGF. Quantitative in situ hybridization was used to detect changes in neuronal PACAP mRNA expression and to correlate this expression with neuronal mRNA expression of the NGF receptor tyrosine kinase (trk) A. The results from this study show that inflammation triggered increases in PACAP expression occurs in small- to medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that also express trkA, and that this elevation in PACAP expression is prevented by systemic injection of anti-NGF. This supports a role for NGF as a positive regulator of PACAP expression during inflammation.