The transcription factor early growth response gene 1 (EGR1) has been implicated in diverse roles in the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, and differentiation. Previous studies suggest that the effects of EGR1 on tumorigenesis are critically dependent on the cellular context. In a majority of prostate cancers, EGR1 is overexpressed and promotes prostate tumor progression. In contrast, in other tumor types such as breast cancers and glioblastomas, EGR1 is expressed at low levels and when overexpressed can inhibit tumor growth. To explore the role of EGR1 in prostate tumorigenesis, we examined the impact of EGR1 expression on the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. We show here that EGR1 binds to the AR in prostate carcinoma cells, and an EGR1-AR complex can be detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation at the enhancer of an endogenous AR target gene. Overexpression of EGR1 enhanced AR-mediated transactivation, whereas EGR1 knockdown by small interfering RNA inhibited AR signaling pathway activity. Furthermore, Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses showed that constitutive overexpression of EGR1 promotes the translocation of AR from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These results indicate that EGR1 may promote prostate cancer development by modulating the androgen receptor signaling pathway.