Between October 2000 and October 2001, all transradial cases performed by the author necessitating radial and upper arm angiography because of difficult advancement of standard guidewires or catheters were analyzed retrospectively. Fourteen of 594 (2.4%) transradial cases met the study criteria. Radial loops or stenosis and tortuosity in the subclavian or innominate artery were responsible for the difficult access. Several examples of patients with access problems are presented. A technique using a hydrophilic-coated guidewire and a new hydrophilic-coated guiding catheter is described.
Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.