A comparison between data from proton-MR spectroscopy (1HMRS) and quantitative histomorphology of tumor cell nuclei in gliomas has not been reported up to now. Therefore, the question must be answered, if there are any significant correlations between histomorphology of gliomas and quantitative data from 1HMRS concerning tissue metabolites. Surgical glioma specimen (glioblastomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas) from 46 patients with tumor grades II-IV according to WHO have been evaluated by means of a digital image analysis system using Ki-67-immunostained paraffin sections. Nuclear density, Ki-67-proliferation index, nuclear area and shape variables (roundness factor, Fourier-amplitudes) have been determined from 200 randomly selected tumor cell nuclei in each tumor specimen. These data have been correlated with preoperative data from 1HMRS. A positive correlation between Fourier-amplitudes, choline peak and lipide peak was observed, as well as a negative correlation between these variables and the nuclear roundness factor. This result indicates higher choline and lipide peaks with increasing irregularity of nuclear outlines. Proliferation index Ki-67 was positively correlated with the lipide peak, nuclear density showed a positive correlation with the choline peak. Glioblastomas (n = 29) showed an additional positive correlation between mean nuclear size and total creatine. Anaplastic gliomas (n = 12) showed a positive correlation between lactate peak and the standard deviation of the nuclear roundness factor. Further multivariate analyses have shown, that for the present collective of 46 cases, histometric variables have a higher significance than spectroscopic data for the differentiation of the different tumor grades. These results verify a significant correlation between preoperative data from 1HMRS and histomorphology of tumor cell nuclei in gliomas, supporting the biological significance of both histomorphometry and 1HMRS for the evaluation of these tumors.