Critical review of non-invasive respiratory monitoring in medical care

Med Biol Eng Comput. 2003 Jul;41(4):377-83. doi: 10.1007/BF02348078.


Respiratory failure can be difficult to predict. It can develop into a life-threatening condition in just a few minutes, or it can build up more slowly. Thus continuous monitoring of respiratory activity should be mandatory in clinical, high-risk situations, and appropriate monitoring equipment could be life-saving. The review considers non-invasive methods and devices claimed to provide information about respiratory rate or depth, or gas exchange. Methods are categorised into those responding to movement, volume and tissue composition detection; air flow; and blood gas concentration. The merits and limitations of the methods and devices are analysed, considering information content and their ability to minimise the rate of false alarms and false non-alarms. It is concluded that the field of non-invasive respiratory monitoring is still in an exploratory phase, with numerous reports on specific device solutions but less work on evaluation and adaptation to clinical requirements. Convincing evidence of the clinical usefulness of respiratory monitors is still lacking. Devices responding only to respiratory rate, and lacking information about actual gas exchange, will have limited clinical value. Furthermore, enhancement in specificity and sensitivity to avoid false alarms and non-alarms will be necessary to meet clinical requirements. Miniature CO2 sensors are identified as one route towards substantial improvement.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Breath Tests
  • Carbon Dioxide / analysis
  • Critical Care / methods*
  • Humans
  • Lung / physiopathology*
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / instrumentation
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / methods*
  • Oximetry
  • Oxygen / analysis
  • Plethysmography
  • Respiratory Insufficiency / diagnosis*
  • Respiratory Muscles / physiopathology


  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Oxygen