Arf GTP-binding proteins regulate membrane traffic and actin remodeling. Similar to other GTP-binding proteins, a complex of Arf-GTP with an effector protein mediates Arf function. Arf interacts with at least three qualitatively different types of effectors. First, it interacts with structural proteins, the vesicle coat proteins. The second type of effector is lipid-metabolizing enzymes, and the third comprises those proteins that bind to Arf-GTP but whose biochemical or biological functions are not yet clearly defined. Arf interacts with two other families of proteins, the exchange factors and the GTPase-activating proteins. Recent work examining the functional relationships among the diverse Arf interactors has led to reconsideration of the prevailing paradigms for Arf action.