Alcoholic fermentation is one of the main phases in wine production. It is usually conducted by yeasts belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Industrial S. cerevisiae strains are highly specialized organisms, which have evolved to utilize to their full potential the different environments or ecological niches. So, during the alcoholic fermentation, the yeast has been adapted to different kinds of stress conditions; this adaptation is call "domestication". In this review, we describe the different mechanisms involved in the adaptive evolution of wine yeast strains.