The child survival revolution of the 1980s contributed to steady decreases in child mortality in some populations, but much remains to be done. More than 10 million children will die this year, almost all of whom are poor. Two-thirds of these deaths could have been prevented if effective child survival interventions had reached all children and mothers who needed them. Translation of current knowledge into effective action for child survival will require leadership, strong health systems, targeted human and financial resources, and modified health system to ensure that poor children and mothers benefit. A group of concerned scientists and policy-makers issues a call to action to leaders, governments, and citizens to translate knowledge into action for child survival.