Osteoporosis is a common disorder afflicting old people. The parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene is involved in bone remodeling and calcium homeostasis, and has been considered as an important candidate gene for osteoporosis. In this study, we simultaneously tested linkage and/or association of PTH gene with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), two important risk factors for osteoporosis. A sample of 1263 subjects from 402 Chinese nuclear families was used. The families are composed of both parents and at least one healthy daughter aged from 20 to 45 years. All the subjects were genotyped at the polymorphic BstBI site inside the intron 2 of the PTH gene (a nucleotide substitution of G to A at the position +3244). BMD and BMC were measured at the lumbar spine and the hip region via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Using QTDT (quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium test), we did not find significant results for association or linkage between the PTH gene and BMD or BMC variation at the spine or hip. Our data do not support the PTH gene as a quantitative trait locus (QTL) underlying the bone phenotypic variation in the Chinese population.