Purpose: Outcome measurement research has extended beyond traditional clinical and physiologic parameters to include psychosocial aspects. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate quality-of-life (QOL) and self-efficacy disparities for gender and diagnoses during participation in cardiac rehabilitation.
Methods: For this study, 472 patients (114 women and 358 men) were stratified by gender and then again by diagnosis to include surgical revascularization, myocardial infarction, and percutaneous coronary intervention. Measures obtained at baseline and at the end of the study assessed quality of life (QOL-o = total score), including emotional (QOL-e) and limitation (QOL-l) domains; self-efficacy (SE-o = total score), including ambulatory (SE-a) and muscular (SE-m) domains; and caloric expenditure.
Results: Both self-efficacy and QOL were greater at the end of the study across genders (P <.05). The men had greater self-efficacy values for all domains (P <.05). There was a significant gender-time interaction for QOL-e (P <.05) among the women, and for QOL-o, QOL-l, and all self-efficacy domains (P <.05) among the surgical revascularization patients. Percutaneous coronary intervention patients had higher self-efficacy scores throughout. Caloric expenditure was a consistent positive predictor of self-efficacy and QOL-e (P <.05).
Conclusions: Quality of life and self-efficacy improve during cardiac rehabilitation across gender and diagnoses. Female and revascularized patients present with low QOL and self-efficacy scores initially, but improvements in scores similar to or greater than the men can be expected. Because the self-efficacy scores of percutaneous coronary intervention patients are higher and their physical limitations are less prohibitive, these patients can be progressed more aggressively. Improvements in self-efficacy scores parallel caloric expenditure increases.