Epstein-Barr virus induces invasion and metastasis factors

Anticancer Res. May-Jun 2003;23(3A):2133-8.


The oncogenic properties of the principal EBV oncoprotein, Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP-1), include the ability to induce invasiveness and metastasis factors. We have shown that LMP-1 induces matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a type IV collagenase that disrupts basement membrane. Also, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is overexpressed in diverse malignancies, is induced by LMP-1; the enzyme is functional, and co-expressed with LMP-1 in NPC. Inhibitors of the NF kappa B signaling pathway, which is activated by LMP-1, including I kappa B super-repressor and aspirin reduce or cancel induction of MMP-9, COX-2 and invasiveness of LMP-1-expressing cells. Production of VEGF, also induced by LMP-1, is decreased by a COX-2-specific inhibitor. We now show that LMP-1 induces expression of the angiogenic Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2). Furthermore, LMP-1 also causes secretion of the 18 kDa isoform of this protein--a newly identified function for LMP-1. Secretion of FGF-2 is independently signaled through the NF-kappa B pathway. Release of the protein is not dependent on the classical ER/Golgi secretory pathway, but secretion of FGF-2 is suppressed by ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit. Finally LMP-1 induces expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha), which mediates adaptation of cells to O2-depleted states. Thus LMP-1 is not only directly oncogenic, it can induce a constellation of factors that reveal the additional role of EBV in invasive cancers such as NPC. Alteration of cellular phenotype independent of transforming effects may be a property of other tumor viruses.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / biosynthesis
  • Enzyme Induction
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / biosynthesis
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • Lymphokines / biosynthesis
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / biosynthesis
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / biosynthesis
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasms / virology*
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Viral Matrix Proteins / metabolism
  • Viral Matrix Proteins / physiology


  • EBV-associated membrane antigen, Epstein-Barr virus
  • Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Isoenzymes
  • Lymphokines
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Viral Matrix Proteins
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • PTGS2 protein, human
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9