Eosinophils are the main source of the cysteinyl leukotrienes, LTC(4)/D(4)/E(4), which are lipid mediators that play major roles in the pathogenesis of asthma and other forms of allergic inflammation. Here, we review the mechanisms governing eosinophil LTC(4) synthesis, focusing on the distinct intracellular domains that regulate eicosanoid formation and function within eosinophils. Cysteinyl leukotrienes exert their actions by engaging specific receptors. As recently shown, eosinophils express CysLT1 and CysLT2, the only cloned receptors for cysteinyl leukotrienes. Therefore, here we also present some of the new findings regarding the paracrine/autocrine activation of these CysLT receptors on eosinophils, and discuss some data on novel intracrine effects of LTC(4) triggered by a putative third CysLT receptor expressed intracellularly within eosinophils.