The aim of treatment of superficial bladder cancer with intravesical therapy is threefold: (1) Eradicate existing disease. (2) Prevention of recurrence. (3) Prevention of tumor progression. The prognostic factors allow differentiation in different risk groups and this is useful in planning treatment. Studies on pharmacokinetics have proved the efficacy of optimized drug delivery. Comparing resection with and without intravesical chemotherapy a short term approximately 15% decrease in tumor recurrence with chemotherapy can be obtained but no effect on progression was proven. No agent has proved more effective than the other. Single, early instillation of chemotherapy has proven effective but the role of maintenance therapy has been controversial. Immunotherapy in the form of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin generally have proven more efficacious than chemotherapy. The results in comparison to mitomycin C have not been as conclusive. Several new approaches are explored to improve the efficacy of this therapy.