Needle-free Epidermal Powder Immunization

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2002 Oct;1(3):265-76. doi: 10.1586/14760584.1.3.265.


Due to the presence of a network of antigen-presenting cells and other cells with innate and adaptive immune functions, the skin is both a sensitive immune organ and a practical target site for vaccine administration. A handful of needle-free immunization technologies have emerged in recent years that aim to take advantage of these characteristics. Skin delivery technologies provide potentially safer alternatives to needle injection and promises increased efficacy in the prevention and/or therapy of infectious diseases, allergic disorders and cancer. In this review, we will cover advances in needle-free skin vaccination technologies and their potential applications to disease prevention and therapy. Emphasis will be placed on epidermal powder immunization and particle-mediated ('gene gun') DNA immunization, which use similar mechanical devices to deliver protein and DNA vaccines, respectively, into the viable epidermis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Administration, Cutaneous*
  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation / immunology
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular / immunology
  • Powders
  • Skin Physiological Phenomena
  • Vaccination / methods*
  • Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines / chemistry*
  • Vaccines, DNA / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, DNA / immunology


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Powders
  • Vaccines
  • Vaccines, DNA