Lyme borreliosis is a multi-organ infection caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group with its species B burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii, which are transmitted by ticks of the species Ixodes. Laboratory testing of Lyme borreliosis includes culture, antibody detection using ELISA with whole extracts or recombinant chimeric borrelia proteins, immunoblot, and PCR with different levels of sensitivity and specificity for each test. Common skin manifestations of Lyme borreliosis include erythema migrans, lymphocytoma, and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. The last two conditions are usually caused by B garinii and B afzelii, respectively, which are seen more frequently in Europe than in America. Late extracutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis are characterised by carditis, neuroborreliosis, and arthritis. We present evidence-based treatment recommendations for Lyme borreliosis and review the prevention of Lyme borreliosis, including the Lyme vaccines.