A phosphorothioate oligonucleotide composed of deoxyguanosine and thymidine was identified as an inhibitor of HIV-1 infection at an early stage of the HIV-1 replication cycle in vitro. The phosphodiester and phosphorothioate chimeric oligonucleotides were found to be potent inhibitors of several steps of HIV-1 infection: the interaction with CD4 and the chemokine receptor, the reverse transcriptase activity, and the integrase activity. To elucidate the mechanism of the anti-HIV-1 function of these oligonucleotides in terms of their structure, we focussed on their G-serial sequences and investigated the characteristics of their solution structures. These oligonucleotides were proved to be able to adopt G-quadruplex structures by UV and CD measurements. We presume that the anti-HIV-1 activities of these oligonucleotides are consequently attributable to G-quadruplex formation.