Management of haemorrhagic complications associated with oral anticoagulant treatment

Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2002 Jul;1(2):129-36. doi: 10.1517/14740338.1.2.129.


The frequency of anticoagulant-related bleeding has been reported to range 1-7% per year, depending on the indication for anticoagulant therapy and the classification of bleeding. Although most bleeding is not life threatening, it does cause short-term morbidity and inconvenience to patients, as well as possibly diminishing their quality of life to some degree. Assessing the risk of anticoagulant-related bleeding is integral to optimising the management of anticoagulant therapy. Furthermore, early recognition and treatment of anticoagulant-related bleeding can reduce the associated morbidity. This article reviews the definitions of major and minor bleeding, the assessment of risk and preventive strategies and the management of anticoagulant-related bleeding.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Aged
  • Anticoagulants / administration & dosage
  • Anticoagulants / adverse effects*
  • Hemorrhage* / chemically induced
  • Hemorrhage* / classification
  • Hemorrhage* / therapy
  • Humans
  • International Normalized Ratio*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Vitamin K / therapeutic use*
  • Warfarin / adverse effects*


  • Anticoagulants
  • Vitamin K
  • Warfarin