Montanide ISA 720 and 51: a new generation of water in oil emulsions as adjuvants for human vaccines

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2002 Jun;1(1):111-8. doi: 10.1586/14760584.1.1.111.


The development of adjuvants will represent a major challenge for this century. Indeed the need for safer vaccines leads to the development of a new generation of antigens like synthetic peptide, recombinant proteins or even vectored DNA. However, this is to the detriment of their immunogenicity. The addition of adjuvant is becomes necessary to enhance immune responses and improve vaccine potency. However, adjuvants can be responsible for the apparition of secondary reactions and they must be adapted according to various criteria such as the route of immunization, the type of the immune response, the duration of immunity, or the quality of the antigen, in order to get the best balance between efficacy and safety.

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / adverse effects
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / chemistry
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Drug Stability
  • Emulsions
  • Humans
  • Mannitol / adverse effects
  • Mannitol / analogs & derivatives*
  • Mannitol / pharmacology*
  • Oils
  • Oleic Acids / adverse effects
  • Oleic Acids / pharmacology*
  • Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines / immunology*
  • Water


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Emulsions
  • Oils
  • Oleic Acids
  • Vaccines
  • montanide ISA 51
  • Water
  • mannide monooleate
  • Mannitol