Cloning and characterization of a novel member of the human ATF/CREB family: ATF2 deletion, a potential regulator of the human DNA polymerase beta promoter

Gene. 2003 Jul 17:312:117-24. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(03)00607-3.


The solitary cAMP response element (CRE)1 in the human DNA polymerase beta (beta-pol) core promoter plays a key role in both basal expression and the DNA-alkylating agent response of the promoter. To further understand the role of the CRE in the regulation of this promoter, we searched for novel CRE-binding proteins by using a 32P-labeled beta-pol CRE oligodeoxynucleotide and a human cDNA expression library constructed in phage lambda. A total of fourteen phage clones were isolated, corresponding to various members of the CRE-binding protein family. One of these clones, termed ATF2 deletion (ATF2d), encodes a novel ATF2 isoform and was chosen for further characterization in this study. Relative to ATF2 mRNA, this clone contains an internal 97-nt deletion and a unique 3' region. The 97-nt deletion causes a frame shift, resulting in a ATF2-like polypeptide of approximately 60 kDa. ATF2d retains the bZIP domain of ATF2, lacks the N-terminal zinc-finger region, and includes novel characteristics in its N- and C-terminal regions.

MeSH terms

  • Activating Transcription Factor 2
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Cell Line
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / genetics*
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism
  • DNA Polymerase beta / genetics
  • DNA, Complementary / chemistry
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  • Glutathione Transferase / genetics
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • ATF2 protein, human
  • Activating Transcription Factor 2
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • DNA, Complementary
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • DNA Polymerase beta