A review of emergency equipment carried and procedures performed by UK front line paramedics

Resuscitation. 2003 Aug;58(2):153-8. doi: 10.1016/s0300-9572(03)00150-3.


Objectives: To assess which items of resuscitation equipment are carried on United Kingdom (UK) front line ambulances and what procedures paramedics are able to perform. To compare these findings with those of a previous survey in 1997.

Method: Postal survey to the chief executives of all the UK ambulance services and direct comparison with the data from 1997.

Results: Nasopharyngeal airway usage (NPA) has increased (21-55%) and the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) (from 10 to 26%). No services employ the Combitube. 94% of services use a Hudson type trauma mask (increase of 17%). One service no longer allows its paramedics to deliver 12-15 l of oxygen. 68% of trust paramedics can perform needle thoracocentesis (increase of 35%). No paramedics perform chest drain insertion. All services have 14G intravenous cannulae available and 45% carry the intraosseous needle (increase of 30%). No services employ the MAST suit. There is an increase by 29% in the use of crystalloids and a decrease in the use of colloids of 22%. 23% of fluid resuscitation protocols are based upon the principles of hypotensive resuscitation. Spinal boards and extrication devices are used by 97% of services. The use of inflatable splints has decreased (38-23%). There has been a minor increase in the use of traction splints to 74% of services. The use of Entonox is universal. Nalbuphine (Nubain) is the most widely used opioid. The use of morphine/diamorphine has doubled to 10% with a further 26% to introduce their use. 29% of services have equipped some vehicles with automatic external defibrillators.

Conclusions: The equipment available to UK paramedics and procedures that they may perform continues to expand. There are still variations in the basic management of airway, breathing and circulation care and only some services are keeping up to date with current medical thinking, for example the increasing use of crystalloids and hypotensive resuscitation. It remains to be seen whether the widespread use of Nalbuphine as a first line analgesic may decrease as the use of natural strong opiates becomes more widespread.

MeSH terms

  • Ambulances* / standards
  • Emergency Medical Technicians*
  • Emergency Medicine / instrumentation*
  • Emergency Medicine / standards
  • Humans
  • Resuscitation / instrumentation*
  • United Kingdom