A guild of organisms carried by the same vector (Ixodes ticks) in Lyme-endemic areas may be confounding the understanding of Lyme disease in dogs. A new diagnostic method, the C6 peptide test for Lyme, and serology and PCR testing for Ehrlichia, Babesia, and Bartonella species will help to sort out seroprevalence and symptomatology caused by exposure to these agents or by coinfections. In addition, Rickettsia, Leptospira, Mycoplasma species, and more could be involved in dogs diagnosed with a "doxycycline-responsive" disease. The author does not recommend treating asymptomatic Borrelia carrier dogs, but does recommend screening them for proteinuria and for exposure to other agents. A positive Lyme titer is a marker of exposure to Ixodes ticks and the agents they carry. The risk/benefit of vaccination will be understood better as the symptomatology and immunopathogenesis of Lyme disease are defined. Meanwhile, tick control is highly recommended for all dogs in Lyme-endemic areas.