Positional change in blood pressure and 8-year risk of hypertension: the CARDIA Study

Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Aug;78(8):951-8. doi: 10.4065/78.8.951.


Objective: To assess the relationship between positional blood pressure change and 8-year incidence of hypertension in a biracial cohort of young adults.

Subjects and methods: Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study with complete data from year 2 (1987-1988), year 5 (1990-1991), year 7 (1992-1993), and year 10 (1995-1996) examinations were included (N = 2781). Participants were classified into 3 groups based on their year 2 systolic blood pressure response to standing: drop, a decrease in systolic blood pressure of more than 5 mm Hg; same, a change of between -5 and +5 mm Hg; and rise, more than 5-mm Hg increase.

Results: The number of participants in each group was as follows: drop, 741; same, 1590; and rise, 450. The 8-year incidence of hypertension was 8.4% in the drop group, 6.8% in the same group, and 12.4% in the rise group (P < .001). Adjusted odds ratios for developing hypertension during the follow-up period in the rise group vs the same group were as follows: in black men, 2.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-5.69), in black women, 2.47 (95% CI, 1.19-5.11), in white men, 2.17 (95% CI, 1.00-4.73), and in white women, 4.74 (95% CI, 1.11-20.30).

Conclusions: A greater than 5-mm Hg increase in blood pressure on standing identified a group of young adults at increased risk of developing hypertension within 8 years. These findings support a physiologic link between sympathetic nervous system reactivity and risk of hypertension in young adults.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Cohort Studies
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Hypertension / ethnology
  • Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Incidence
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Posture / physiology*
  • Risk Factors