Approximately 10 million adults in the United States have experienced the passage of a kidney stone, and up to 5 million have been diagnosed with gout by a physician. Previous reports have suggested that gout increases the risk for the development of kidney stones, but there are no prospective data. We used data from a cohort of 51,529 male health care professionals to examine the independent association between gout and kidney stone disease. In a cross-sectional analysis of gout and kidney stone disease reported on the 1986 baseline questionnaire, the prevalence of kidney stone disease was almost twofold higher in men with history of gout compared to those without (15% vs. 8%). After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), a history of gout remained significantly associated with kidney stone disease (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.68 to 2.11). We then prospectively examined the risk of incident kidney stones in men with and without a confirmed diagnosis of gout after excluding men who reported a history of kidney stone disease or gout on the baseline questionnaire. A confirmed diagnosis of gout increased the multivariate relative risk of incident kidney stones (RR 2.12; 95% CI 1.22 to 3.68). In contrast, a history of kidney stone disease was not associated with increased risk of gout (RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.54 to 2.07). In conclusion, a history of gout independently increases the risk for incident kidney stones in men. Physicians should provide dietary counseling, such as increasing fluid intake and decreasing salt consumption, to subjects with gout in addition to other risk factors, such as family history of kidney stones, in order to decrease the likelihood of stone formation.