In conclusion, core stability exercise is an evolving process, and refinement of the clinical rehabilitation strategies is ongoing. Two major foci are addressed in contemporary core stability programs: motor control and muscle capacity. Both of these factors have considerable foundation in the literature and can be seen as a progression of exercise rather than conflicting approaches. Importantly, the clinical efficacy of these approaches is being realized in clinical trials. Further work is required, however, to refine and validate the approach, particularly with reference to contemporary understanding of the neurobiology of chronic pain.