Expression of immune modulating mediators in human Islets of Langerhans could have important implications for development of autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes and influence the outcome of clinical islet transplantation. Islets obtained from five donors were analyzed at various times after isolation using cDNA array technology. The Atlas Human Cytokine/Receptor and Hematology/Immunology nylon membranes representing 268 genes and 406, respectively, were used and the relative expression of each gene analyzed. Of the 51 gene products identified, high mRNA expression of MCP-1, MIF, VEGF, and thymosin beta-10 was detected in all islet samples. IL-8, IL-1-beta, IL-5R, and INF-gamma antagonist were expressed in islets cultured for 2 days. IL-2R was expressed in islets cultured for more than 6 days. In conclusion, several inflammatory mediators were expressed in isolated islets, particularly at an early stage after isolation, indicating that a few days of culture could be beneficial for the outcome of islet transplantation.