Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of atorvastatin (10 to 20 mg) in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia or severe hypercholesterolemia.
Study design: Subjects (n=187) were randomly assigned to 26 weeks of treatment with atorvastatin (10 mg) or placebo. Dosage was increased to 20 mg if LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remained >3.4 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) at week 4. At week 26, subjects received 10 mg of atorvastatin for an additional 26 weeks. Efficacy variables included percent changes in LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B from baseline to week 26.
Results: Atorvastatin caused a highly significant reduction in LDL-C compared with placebo (-40% vs -0.4%, respectively; P<.001). Percent changes at week 26 also significantly favored atorvastatin for total cholesterol (-32% vs -1.5%; P<.001), triglycerides (-12% vs +1.0%; P=0.03), and apolipoprotein B (-34% vs +0.7%; P<.001), with a significantly greater increase in HDL cholesterol with atorvastatin compared with placebo (+2.8% vs -1.8%; P=.02). Atorvastatin was as well-tolerated as placebo.
Conclusions: Treatment with atorvastatin for 12 months was effective and safe for pediatric subjects with known familial hypercholesterolemia or severe hypercholesterolemia.