Objective: To evaluate the effect of early hypertension on long-term allograft survival in children with kidney transplantation.
Study design: Data from a total of 159 patients (mean age, 12.8+/-4.8 years) who underwent kidney transplantation between 1978 and 1998 and whose allograft was functioning for at least 1 year were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided according to the presence of hypertension within the first year after transplantation. Primary outcome was time of allograft failure (death, return to dialysis, or retransplantation).
Results: Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that systolic (P<.0001) and diastolic (P=.016) hypertension was associated with overall worse allograft survival. Children with systolic hypertension had a significantly higher graft failure rate regardless of the type of donor, cause of kidney failure, presence or absence of acute rejection, and allograft function at 1 year after transplantation. The multivariate Cox regression model proved that systolic hypertension was a significant and independent risk factor for poor graft survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.79; P<.0001). Other predictors included allograft function at 1 year after transplantation (HR, 0.97; P<.0001), acquired cause of end-stage kidney disease (HR, 1.96; P=.01) and age <6 years (HR, 2.61; P=.045).
Conclusions: Early posttransplantation systolic hypertension strongly and independently predicts poor long-term graft survival in pediatric patients.