Cerebral histoplasmosis in the azole era: report of four cases and review

South Med J. 2003 Apr;96(4):410-6. doi: 10.1097/01.SMJ.0000051734.53654.D0.


We report four cases of cerebral histoplasmosis and discuss features of six additional cases reported in the medical literature in the past 10 years, when azoles have been available for therapy. Most patients with this disease are immunocompromised or have a history that suggests heavy exposure to Histoplasma capsulatum. Fever and other clinical findings of systemic toxicity caused by disseminated histoplasmosis may be absent; 5 of 10 patients did not manifest these findings. Although the mainstay of treatment for central nervous system histoplasmosis remains amphotericin B, 9 of the 10 patients received itraconazole or fluconazole either as initial therapy or after a course of treatment with amphotericin B.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Amphotericin B / therapeutic use*
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Female
  • Histoplasmosis / diagnosis
  • Histoplasmosis / drug therapy*
  • Histoplasmosis / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Amphotericin B