Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being

J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003 Aug;85(2):348-62. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348.


Five studies tested two general hypotheses: Individuals differ in their use of emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal and suppression, and these individual differences have implications for affect, well-being, and social relationships. Study 1 presents new measures of the habitual use of reappraisal and suppression. Study 2 examines convergent and discriminant validity. Study 3 shows that reappraisers experience and express greater positive emotion and lesser negative emotion, whereas suppressors experience and express lesser positive emotion, yet experience greater negative emotion. Study 4 indicates that using reappraisal is associated with better interpersonal functioning, whereas using suppression is associated with worse interpersonal functioning. Study 5 shows that using reappraisal is related positively to well-being, whereas using suppression is related negatively.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Affect / physiology*
  • Discriminant Analysis
  • Emotions / physiology*
  • Ethnicity / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Individuality*
  • Interpersonal Relations*
  • Male
  • Models, Psychological
  • Quality of Life / psychology*
  • Repression, Psychology
  • Sex Factors
  • Social Behavior
  • Students / psychology