Fluorescent and colored trinitrophenylated analogs of ATP and GTP

Eur J Biochem. 2003 Sep;270(17):3479-85. doi: 10.1046/j.1432-1033.2003.03748.x.


Fluorescent and colored trinitrophenylated (TNP) analogs of ATP and GTP can interact with nucleotide-requiring enzymes and proteins as a substitute for the parent nucleotide. These analogs have strong binding affinities for most nucleotide-requiring systems. Their bindings are easily detected by absorption and fluorescence changes in the visible region. Recent years have seen dramatic developments in the application of the TNP nucleotide analogs as spectroscopic probes for the study on the nucleotide-interacting properties of various enzymes and proteins including their mutants. This review is intended as a broad overview of currently extensively used applications of the nucleotide analogs in various biological systems.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / analogs & derivatives*
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Crystallography, X-Ray / methods
  • Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer / methods
  • Fluorescent Dyes / chemistry*
  • Fluorescent Dyes / metabolism
  • Guanosine Triphosphate / analogs & derivatives*
  • Guanosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Ligands
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence / methods
  • Models, Molecular
  • Protein Binding
  • Trinitrobenzenes / chemistry*
  • Trinitrobenzenes / metabolism


  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Ligands
  • Trinitrobenzenes
  • Guanosine Triphosphate
  • Adenosine Triphosphate