Association between cytomegalovirus infection, enhanced proinflammatory response and low level of anti-hemagglutinins during the anti-influenza vaccination--an impact of immunosenescence

Vaccine. 2003 Sep 8;21(25-26):3826-36. doi: 10.1016/s0264-410x(03)00309-8.


We assessed association between prior cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, proinflammatory status and effectiveness of the anti-influenza vaccination. We examined 154 individuals during the epidemic season dividing them according to the age, response to the vaccine and the Senieur Protocol (SP). The anti-hemagglutinins (HI), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL6, IL10, ACTH/cortisol axis, anti-CMV antibodies and CD28+CD57- lymphocytes were assessed. Non-responders of both ages we characterised by higher levels of anti-CMV IgG and higher percentages of CD57+CD28- lymphocytes (known to be associated with CMV carrier status) together with increased concentrations of TNFalpha and IL6 and decreased levels of cortisol. The anti-influenza vaccine induced increase in TNFalpha and IL10 in the all non-responders, while cortisol increased only in the young. Concluding, CMV carrier status eliciting elevated proinflammatory potential could contribute to unresponsiveness to the anti-influenza vaccine.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging / immunology*
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • CD28 Antigens / immunology
  • Carrier State
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / immunology*
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / pathology*
  • Female
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Health Status
  • Hemagglutinins / biosynthesis*
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / biosynthesis
  • Inflammation / pathology*
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Interleukin-1 / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-10 / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-6 / biosynthesis
  • Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Male
  • Monocytes / immunology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis
  • Vaccination


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • CD28 Antigens
  • Cytokines
  • Hemagglutinins
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Interleukin-1
  • Interleukin-6
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interleukin-10
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • Hydrocortisone