Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gammaPro12Ala polymorphism and the association with blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: skaraborg hypertension and diabetes project

J Hypertens. 2003 Sep;21(9):1657-62. doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000084734.53355.0d.


Objective: This study explored whether the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is associated with blood pressure in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

Design: A community-based, cross-sectional observation study.

Setting: Primary care.

Patients: One hundred and ninety-two men and 192 women with type 2 diabetes who consecutively underwent annual follow-up.

Main outcome measure: The PPARgammaPro12Ala genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-based techniques. Associations between genotype and blood pressure were analysed by linear regression and expressed as differences in blood pressure (delta) with 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: The mean systolic blood pressure and the diastolic blood pressure were 160 mmHg (standard deviation = 22.8) and 84 mmHg (standard deviation = 9.6), respectively. Subjects with Pro/Ala (24%) or Ala/Ala (2%) had lower diastolic blood pressure (delta = 2.8; 95% CI, 0.6-5.0) when adjusted for age and gender compared with Pro/Pro subjects (74%). This association was restricted to men (delta = 4.4; 95% CI, 1.3-7.4), who also had a borderline significant difference in systolic blood pressure (delta = 6.9; 95% CI, -0.8 to 13.8). In men the difference in diastolic blood pressure remained after adjustment for age, body mass index, serum triglycerides, serum insulin and haemoglobin A(1c) (delta = 4.6; 95% CI, 1.1-8.1). A subanalysis of normotensive men (n = 100) confirmed the difference associated with the Pro12Ala polymorphism in diastolic blood pressure (delta = 5.2; 95% CI, 0.6-10.0).

Conclusions: The common Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPARgamma is associated with lower diastolic blood pressure in male subjects with type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Pressure / genetics*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / genetics*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*


  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Transcription Factors