Genome-wide linkage analysis and evidence of gene-by-gene interactions in a sample of 362 multiplex Parkinson disease families

Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Oct 15;12(20):2599-608. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddg270. Epub 2003 Aug 12.


Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. We studied 754 affected individuals, comprising 425 sibling pairs, to identify PD susceptibility genes. Screening of the parkin gene was performed in a subset of the sample having earlier age of PD onset or a positive LOD score with a marker in the parkin gene. All subjects were evaluated using a rigorous neurological assessment. Two diagnostic models were considered for genome-wide, non-parametric linkage analyses. Model I included only those individuals with a more stringent diagnosis of verified PD (216 sibling pairs) and resulted in a maximum LOD score of 3.4 on chromosome 2. Model II included all affected individuals (425 sibling pairs) and yielded a LOD score of 3.1 on the X chromosome. Our large sample was then employed to test for gene-by-gene (epistatic) interactions. A genome screen using the 23 families with PD patients having a mutation in only one allele of the parkin gene detected evidence of linkage to chromosome 10 (LOD=2.3). The 85 families with a very strong family history of PD were employed in a genome screen and, in addition to strong evidence of linkage to chromosome 2 (LOD=4.9), also produced a LOD of 2.4 on chromosome 14. A genome screen performed in the 277 families without a strong family history of PD detected linkage to chromosomes 10 (LOD=2.4) and X (LOD=3.2). These findings demonstrate consistent evidence of linkage to chromosomes 2 and X and also support the hypothesis that gene-by-gene interactions are important in PD susceptibility.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2
  • Chromosomes, Human, X
  • Family
  • Family Health
  • Female
  • Genetic Linkage*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genome*
  • Genome, Human
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Lod Score
  • Male
  • Mutation
  • Parkinson Disease / genetics*