New haplotypes in the Bedlington terrier indicate complexity in copper toxicosis

Mamm Genome. 2003 Jul;14(7):483-91. doi: 10.1007/s00335-002-2255-3.


Copper toxicosis (CT) is an autosomal recessive disorder common in Bedlington terriers. Previously, the CT locus was mapped to canine Chromosome (Chr) 10q26 through linkage to marker C04107. Diagnosis, traditionally based on liver biopsy, has recently shifted to interpretation of the C04107 microsatellite alleles where allele 2 segregates with the disease with 90-95% accuracy. Recently, CT has been attributed to a deletion of exon 2 in the MURR1 gene. We also identified a deletion of exon 2 of MURR1 in our collection of 2-2 homozygous affected terriers. However, our collection also included affected 1-1 homozygotes and 1-2 heterozygotes, and these dogs did not have the homozygous deletion. In addition to C04107, we analyzed an adjacent microsatellite (C04107B), and two novel SNPs, all within intron 1 of MURR1, and sequenced all exons and their intronic boundaries. Pedigree analysis indicates that there are two typical haplotypes, one normal and one affected, maintaining complete linkage disequilibrium between C04107 allele 2 and the deletion in most pedigrees. Most importantly, we identified a recombinant haplotype present in a North American pedigree, where allele 2 is not linked with the deletion, and a fourth haplotype containing a splice site variant. Although the splice site alteration appears to be a normal variant, it is present in two affected dogs, which do not carry homozygous deletions of MURR1.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Copper / metabolism*
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Dogs
  • Female
  • Genetic Diseases, Inborn / genetics*
  • Genetic Diseases, Inborn / metabolism
  • Genetic Markers
  • Haplotypes
  • Male
  • Pedigree
  • Proteins / genetics
  • Proteins / metabolism


  • Genetic Markers
  • Proteins
  • Copper