Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of muscadine grapes

J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Aug 27;51(18):5497-503. doi: 10.1021/jf030113c.


Fruits of 10 cultivars of muscadine grapes (five bronze skin and five purple skin) grown in southern Georgia were separated into skin, seed, and pulp. Each fruit part and the leaves from the corresponding varieties were extracted for HPLC analysis of major phenolics. Total phenolics were determined colorimetrically using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Total anthocyanins were determined according to a pH-differential method, using a UV-visible spectrophotometer. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, and epicatechin were the major phenolics in seeds, with average values of 6.9, 558.4, and 1299.4 mg/100 g of fresh weight (FW), respectively. In the skins, ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and trans-resveratrol were the major phenolics, with respective average values of 16.5, 8.4, 1.8, 0.6, and 0.1 mg/100 g of FW. Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol was the major phenolic in muscadine grapes. The HPLC solvent system used coupled with fluorescence detection allowed separation of ellagic acid from resveratrol and detection of resveratrol. Reported here for the first time are the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of muscadine leaves. Major phenolics in muscadine leaves were myricetin, ellagic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, and gallic acid, with average concentrations of 157.6, 66.7, 8.9, 9.8, and 8.6, respectively. Average total phenolics were 2178.8, 374.6, 23.8, and 351.6 mg/g gallic acid equivalent in seed, skin, pulp, and leaves, respectively. Total anthocyanin contents were 2.1 and 132.1 mg/100 g of FW in the skins of bronze and purple grapes, respectively, and 4.3 and 4.6 mg/100 g of FW in seeds and pulps, in that order. Antioxidant capacity values were, on average, 2.4, 12.8, 281.3, and 236.1 microM TEAC/g of FW for pulps, skins, seeds, and leaves, respectively.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Colorimetry
  • Ellagic Acid / analysis
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Georgia
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Phenols / analysis*
  • Vitis / chemistry*


  • Antioxidants
  • Phenols
  • Ellagic Acid