In Brazil, the southern region has the highest incidence of esophageal cancer and also the highest production and consumption of corn (Zea mays) products. Corn samples intended for human consumption from the western, northern, and southern regions of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, had mean total fumonisin B (B(1), B(2), and B(3)) levels of 3.2, 3.4, and 1.7 mg/kg, respectively. Fusarium verticillioides, the predominant fungus in the corn samples, had mean incidences (percent of kernels infected) of 14, 11, and 18% for the three regions, respectively. Additional corn samples intended for animal feed from the southern region had a mean total fumonisin level of 1.5 mg/kg and a mean F. verticillioides incidence of 10%. The fumonisin levels in corn from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, were similar to the high levels determined in other high esophageal cancer incidence regions of the world.