One- and two-item measures of pain beliefs and coping strategies

Pain. 2003 Aug;104(3):453-469. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3959(03)00076-9.


Pain-related beliefs and pain coping strategies are central components of current cognitive-behavioral models of chronic pain, and have been found in numerous studies to be associated significantly with psychosocial and physical disability. However, the length of most measures of pain-related beliefs and coping restricts the ability of clinicians and researchers to perform a thorough assessment of these variables in many situations. The availability of very brief versions of existing scales would make possible the assessment of a range of important pain beliefs and coping strategies in settings where subject or patient assessment burden is an issue. In this study, one- and two-item versions of the subscales of several commonly used measures of pain beliefs and coping strategies were developed using both rational and empirical procedures. The findings support the validity of these brief subscales. The appropriate use and limitations of these measures are discussed.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain / epidemiology*
  • Pain / psychology*
  • Pain Measurement / methods
  • Pain Measurement / psychology*
  • Pain Measurement / statistics & numerical data*
  • Reproducibility of Results