Adenocarcinoma of the lung among women: risk associated with smoking, prior lung disease, diet and menstrual and pregnancy history

Lung Cancer. 2003 Sep;41(3):283-93. doi: 10.1016/s0169-5002(03)00234-4.


To investigate the role of tobacco and some other known or suspected factors responsible for the risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the lung, and to compare with other cell types (squamous-, small- and large-cell cancers) in Czech women, we conducted a case-control study. Data collected by personal interviews from 145 cases of adenocarcinoma of the lung, 221 lung cancer cases of other cell types, and 1624 controls were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Cigarette smoking was the main determinant of all major cell types of lung cancer among Czech women, its effect was weaker on adenocarcinoma than on squamous-, small- and large-cell cancers. Among never smokers, passive smoking in childhood (before age 16) did not significantly increase the risk of adenocarcinoma (OR=1.35, 95%CI 0.75-2.45), contrasting with an elevation in the risk of squamous-, small- and large-cell cancers combined (OR=2.10, 95%CI 1.02-4.33). Excess risk associated with consumption of red meat daily or several times per week (OR=1.81, 95%CI 1.04-3.18) was restricted to squamous-, small- and large-cell cancers combined. Wine drinking, at higher frequency than once per month, was inversely associated with the risk of adenocarcinoma (OR=0.46, 95%CI 0.23-0.92), however, not with squamous-, small- and large-cell cancers combined (OR=0.77, 95%CI 0.47-1.28). Inverse associations with the risk of squamous-, small- and large-cell cancers combined emerged for the quantity of menstrual flow (OR=0.63, 95%CI 0.40-0.99), and pains or mental tension related to menses (OR=0.61, 95%CI 0.42-0.89).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / etiology*
  • Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / etiology*
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / physiopathology
  • Carcinoma, Small Cell / etiology*
  • Carcinoma, Small Cell / physiopathology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lung Diseases / complications*
  • Lung Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Lung Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Medical History Taking
  • Menstruation*
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Parity
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution