Four cases of XX patients with testis development are reported. The aim of this study was to describe their clinical features and to see if there was any relationship between phenotypes and the presence of Y material. Several human Y-derived sequences including the SRY probe were used to analyze the DNA of the patients. Yp material including the pseudo-autosomal region and SRY was detected. The cases reported in this study confirm that XX true hermaphrodites cannot be distinguished from XX males on the basis of their genotypes. There is no relationship between clinical and anatomical phenotypes and the presence of Y material. SRY does not warrant a complete and normal testis differentiation. Although similar in some features with Klinefelter's syndrome patients, XX males exhibit specific clinical manifestations due to the lack of Y-specific genes.