We investigated the effect of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 17 (IL-17) on the lysis of osteosarcoma cells by human NK cells. NK cells and U-2 OS, MG-63, HOS osteosarcoma cell lines express the IL-17 receptor, the highest amount being found on U-2 OS. Pre-incubation of NK cells with IL-17 did not affect the cytotoxicity against osteosarcomas, that was increased when U-2 OS were pre-incubated with IL-17. In IL-17 treated U-2 OS osteosarcoma cells FACS analysis demonstrated an increased expression of fibronectin among the panel of adhesion molecules assayed, and the treatment with anti-fibronectin antibodies decreased the NK cytotoxicity. The comparison between interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) treated and IFN-gamma/IL-17-treated U-2 OS showed a decreased susceptibility to NK lysis associated with a reduced expression of CD49f on U-2 OS treated with IFN-gamma/IL-17. IL-17 appears to be a modulator of NK adhesion molecules on U-2 OS cells but antagonizes with IFN-gamma on NK lysis.