In vitro and in vivo comparisons of constant resistance AC iontophoresis and DC iontophoresis

J Control Release. 2003 Sep 4;91(3):327-43. doi: 10.1016/s0168-3659(03)00268-2.

Abstract

A previous in vitro constant electrical resistance alternating current (AC) iontophoresis study with human epidermal membrane (HEM) and a model neutral permeant has shown less inter- and intra-sample variability in iontophoretic transport relative to conventional constant direct current (DC) iontophoresis. The objectives of the present study were to address the following questions. (1) Can the skin electrical resistance be maintained at a constant level by AC in humans in vivo? (2) Are the in vitro data with HEM representative of those in vivo? (3) Does constant skin resistance AC iontophoresis have less inter- and intra-sample variability than conventional constant current DC iontophoresis in vivo? (4) What are the electrical and the barrier properties of skin during iontophoresis in vivo? In the present study, in vitro HEM experiments were carried out with the constant resistance AC and the conventional constant current DC methods using mannitol and glucose as the neutral model permeants. In vivo human experiments were performed using glucose as the permeant with a constant skin resistance AC only protocol and two conventional constant current DC methods (continuous constant current DC and constant current DC with its polarity alternated every 10 min with a 3:7 on:off duty cycle). Constant current DC iontophoresis was conducted with commercial constant current DC devices, and constant resistance AC iontophoresis was carried out by reducing and maintaining the skin resistance at a constant target value with AC supplied from a function generator. This study shows that (1) skin electrical resistance can be maintained at a constant level during AC iontophoresis in vivo; (2) HEM in vitro and human skin in vivo demonstrate similar electrical and barrier properties, and these properties are consistent with our previous findings; (3) there is general qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement between the HEM data in vitro and human skin data in vivo; and (4) constant skin resistance AC iontophoresis generally provides less inter- and intra-subject variability than conventional constant current DC.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Diffusion Chambers, Culture
  • Electric Impedance
  • Galvanic Skin Response / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Iontophoresis / instrumentation
  • Iontophoresis / methods*
  • Skin Absorption / physiology