Serum opacity factor (SOF) is a protein expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes that opacifies mammalian serum. SOF is also a virulence factor of S. pyogenes, but it has not been previously shown to elicit a protective immune response. Herein, we report that SOF evokes bactericidal antibodies against S. pyogenes in humans, rabbits, and mice. Rabbit antiserum against purified recombinant SOF2 opsonized SOF-positive M type 2, 4, and 28 S. pyogenes in human blood but had no effect on SOF-negative M type 5 S. pyogenes. Furthermore, affinity-purified human antibodies against SOF2 also opsonized SOF-positive streptococci. A combination of antisera against M2 and SOF2 proteins was dramatically more effective in killing streptococci than either antiserum alone, indicating that antibodies against SOF2 enhance the opsonic efficiency of M protein antibodies. Mice tolerated an intravenous injection of 100 microg of SOF without overt signs of toxicity, and immunization with SOF protected mice against challenge infections with M type 2 S. pyogenes. These data indicate that SOF evokes opsonic antibodies that may protect against infections by SOF-positive serotypes of group A streptococci and suggest that different serotypes of SOF have common epitopes that may be useful vaccine candidates to protect against group A streptococcal infections.