In situ polymerase chain reaction (in situ PCR) can detect specific sequences of DNA, such as those of micro-organisms in human tissue samples. In forensic medicine, there are many cases implicated with infection, and pneumonia is an especially common finding in autopsy cases. In the present study, we tried to detect the presence of bacterial infections in lung tissue samples. The experiment was performed with ten paraffin-embedded lung tissue samples, including three non-pneumonia cases using specific primers for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equisimilis, and a DIG Oligonucleotide 3'-End Labeling Kit (Boehringer Mannheim). The findings showed that at least one or all three species of bacterial flora in the alveoli could be detected in all seven pneumonia cases, and that some leukocyte cytoplasms, after antigen-antibody and color emission chemical reactions, were also observed to have changed color due to phagocytosis. Detection of bacterial DNA in the leukocyte cytoplasm is a sign of vital reaction and differentiates between antemortem and postmortem infection. The present findings revealed that in situ PCR had the advantage that it helped identifying specific bacteria in the lung tissues with pneumonia.