Fifteen somatic (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, FGA) and five Y-chromosome (DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393) short tandem repeat (STR) system analyses were carried out in a Mongolian population in order to define the possible relationship between Mongolians and old Hungarian population. For STR data analysis the Microsoft Excel-PowerStats program was used. Inter-population data analysis was performed with Arlequin Software ver. 2.000. The somatic markers showed meaningful difference between Mongolians and old Hungarians but the distribution of the Y-chromosome STR systems refers to a closer relationship between the old Hungarian and oriental populations.