Evidence for the negative cooperativity of the two active sites within bovine somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme

FEBS Lett. 2003 Aug 28;550(1-3):84-8. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(03)00825-1.


The somatic isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) consists of two homologous domains (N- and C-domains), each bearing a catalytic site. We have used the two-domain ACE form and its individual domains to compare characteristics of different domains and to probe mutual functioning of the two active sites within a bovine ACE molecule. The substrate Cbz-Phe-His-Leu (N-carbobenzoxy-L-phenylalanyl-L-histidyl-L-leucine; from the panel of seven) was hydrolyzed faster by the N-domain, the substrates FA-Phe-Gly-Gly (N-(3-[2-furyl]acryloyl)-L-phenylalanyl-glycyl-glycine) and Hip-His-Leu (N-benzoyl-glycyl-L-histidyl-L-leucine) were hydrolyzed by both domains with equal rates, while other substrates were preferentially hydrolyzed by the C-domain. The inhibitor captopril ((2S)-1-(3-mercapto-2-methylpropionyl)-L-proline) bound to the N-domain more effectively than to the C-domain, whereas lisinopril ((S)-N(alpha)-(1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl)-L-lysyl-L-proline) bound to equal extent with all ACE forms. However, active site titration with lisinopril assayed by hydrolysis of FA-Phe-Gly-Gly revealed that 1 mol of inhibitor/mol of enzyme abolished the activity of either two-domain or single-domain ACE forms, indicating that a single active site functions in bovine somatic ACE. Neither of the k(cat) values obtained for somatic enzyme was the sum of k(cat) values for individual domains, but in every case the value of the catalytic constant of the hydrolysis of the substrate by the two-domain ACE represented the mean quantity of the values of the corresponding catalytic constants obtained for single-domain forms. The results indicate that the two active sites within bovine somatic ACE exhibit strong negative cooperativity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Binding Sites
  • Captopril / pharmacology
  • Cattle
  • Hydrolysis
  • Kinetics
  • Lisinopril / pharmacology
  • Oligopeptides / metabolism
  • Peptides / chemistry
  • Peptides / metabolism
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / chemistry*
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / metabolism
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Titrimetry


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • N-carbobenzoxy-phenylalanyl-histidyl-leucine
  • Oligopeptides
  • Peptides
  • hippuryl-histidyl-leucine
  • 2-furanacryloyl-phenylalanyl-glycyl-glycine
  • Captopril
  • Lisinopril
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A