Here we test the hypothesis that there are distinct temporal patterns of synchronized neuronal activity in the pallidum that characterize untreated and treated parkinsonism and dystonia. To this end we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the caudal and rostral contact pairs of macroelectrodes implanted into the pallidum of patients for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (12 cases recorded on and off medication, 17 macroelectrodes) and dystonia (10 cases, 19 macroelectrodes). Percentage LFP power in the 11-30 Hz band was decreased and that in the 4-10 Hz band increased across both contact pairs in treated Parkinson's disease compared with untreated Parkinson's disease. Dystonic patients had even less 11-30 Hz power and greater 4-10 Hz power compared with untreated or treated Parkinson's disease patients. The change in the 4-10 Hz band in patients with dystonia was particularly manifest in the more rostral contact pair, presumed to be within or bridging the globus pallidus externus. We conclude that untreated and treated Parkinson's disease and dystonia are characterized by different spatiotemporal patterns of activity in the human pallidum.