Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Japanese men

Scand J Gastroenterol. 2003 Aug;38(8):807-11. doi: 10.1080/00365520310004506.


Background: Associations between lifestyle factors and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) have been conflicting. We aimed to examine these associations in Japanese men.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of Japanese male workers who visit a clinic for a routine health check-up and asked them to fill out a self-report questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for GORD, defined as heartburn and/or acid regurgitation at least twice weekly.

Results: Of the 4095 eligible subjects, 276 (6.7%) were diagnosed as having GORD. Current smoking was significantly associated with CORD compared with non-smoking (OR = 1.35, 95% CI, 1.01-1.82). Moderate drinking (16-37 mL/day) and heavy drinking (> or = 38 mL/day) were also associated with GORD, while age and body mass index were not. After adjustment for age, daily alcohol consumption and body mass index, an increase in number of pack-years of cigarette smoking was significantly associated with an increased OR of GORD (P for trend = 0.034), and the OR for persons whose number of pack-years of cigarette smoking was more than 20.1 was 1.45 (CI 1.04-2.04) compared with non-smokers.

Conclusion: Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with an increased odds ratio for GORD in Japanese men.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / diagnosis
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / etiology*
  • Health Behavior*
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*